Urdu- an indo- Aryan language of Indo-Iranian branch. The influencing languages that gave birth to Urdu are Persian, Arabic and Turkish. Urdu has a contrast with Hindustani, another language of the same origin. The basic difference lies in the style of writing of both languages. The number of standard Urdu speakers is around 60 to 80 million majority living in Pakistan and India. Urdu is the national language of Pakistan and the speakers live in almost all big cities. In India Urdu speakers reside are found in majority in Muslim communities or in areas that were under influence of Muslim Empire.
Urdu- the official language
Urdu enjoys the official language status in Pakistan as well as in India. In Pakistan it also has roots ion cultural, religious and social heritage of the country. In India Urdu is the official language of states like Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, and Uttar Pradesh, and the national capital, Delhi.
There are four recognized dialects of Urdu. These are
- Dakhini (Spoken in Maharashtra and some parts of Hyderabad)
- Rekhta (Urdu poetry)
- Khariboli or Modern Vernacular (spoken in Delhi, Lucknow, Karachi and Lahore)
There are two genders in Urdu, masculine and feminine. Masculine carries all males whether these humans or animals. Feminine include all females whether humans or animals. The word ending at vowel determines its gender usually.
The way in which words are arranged follows Subject then comes the Object and then comes the Verb. But this rule can be ignored if the structure is too complicated or there is a need to give some word specific stress.
There are three aspects of Urdu verbs that not only show the persons but also the specific gender.
- Habitual or imperfect
- Progressive or continuous
Urdu- a language of courtesy
The words that are part of Urdu language show graciousness. The respect is shown to the elders whether acquaintances or a strangers. As the degree of formality changes so are the pronouns or the verbs.
Urdu written in roman scripts
Urdu had been written in Roman scripts in British Raj. It was because if low cost incurred over printing presses involved in Urdu publishing. At Present Roman Urdu is again gaining popularity among young generations for texting over cell phones, for internet chatting while having its own conventions.
Urdu- a language of literature
Urdu has been remained as the ruling language of poetry in South Asia for more than two centuries. There are lots of writers, poets who used Urdu as a language of expression and earned their distinguished name. It has given rise to different genres in which poets have been conveying their feelings. Specific to poetry, writing Ghazal, Nazm, Marsia, Qasida, Masnavi are all different genres that are appealing those who love Urdu or Urdu expression or for Urdu speakers. Mirza Ghalib is one distinguished poet of Urdu language. Whether it’s about religion or about science or about worldly affairs, the contribution of Urdu language is remarkable